Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) invented 'the Calculus' (or 'Fluxions' as he referred to it) in 1666 a mathematical method that allowed the movements of the planets to be mathematically predicted, it also has many other scientific and engineering uses. It was used by the Space Programme in to 20th Century to chart the trajectories of robotic probes across the solar system. His famous bit off propaganda about the 'apple falling' allegedly gave him the idea for Gravity. A force the pulled the apple down, and acted on planets, moons, comets, and the sun.
In 1667 he wrote the famous book 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica'. Some regard this as the start of the second great age of science. The first being the ancient Babylonians and Greeks. In it it states Newton's Three Laws of Motion:
- "A object remains, at rest or continues in its motion, unless acted on by another force."
- "The pull of an object (or Planet) is inversely squared to it distance."
- "Every Force has a equal and opposite reaction."
Lucasian Chair (1669-1702) of Mathematics at Cambridge University; President of the Royal [Scientific] Society, London (1703-1727); Member of the Parliament (1689-90, 1701) of England; Warden of the Royal Mint (1696-1699); Master of the Royal Mint (1699-1702) a post for which he was Knighted (1705) by Queen Anne.
- The Royal Society was chartered by King Charles II in 1660 who was very much interested in Science.
- Other professors to hold the Lucasian Chair include the early computing pioneer Charles Babbage (1828-39); and theoretical physicist Stephen Hawkings (1980-date) who wrote 'A Brief History of Time' among other things, and can calculate complex Mathematical Equations in his head.
- Parliament used to actually have one M.P. each from Oxford and Cambridge Universities.